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Frank J. Elgar, PhD


Professor of Psychiatry
School of Population and Global Health
McGill University

Prof. Frank Elgar is cross-appointed to the School of Population and Global Health (Institute for Health and Social Policy) and the Department of Psychiatry at McGill University. He is also an associate member of the Department of Psychology and Margaret A. Gilliam Institute for Global Food Security and visiting professor at the Department of Developmental Psychology and Socialisation, University of Padova and, since 2011, held the Canada Research Chair in Social Inequalities in Child Health.

Prior to his appointment at McGill in 2011, he studied developmental psychology at Memorial University (BA 1996, MSc 1999) and Dalhousie University (PhD 2003) and held positions at Cardiff University's School of Social Sciences (2003-04), the University of Manitoba's Department of Family Social Sciences (2004-06), and Carleton University's Department of Psychology (2006-2011).

Projects in his lab examine the impacts of poverty, economic inequality, food insecurity and school violence on children and youth in various political and economic contexts. This research involves national and international collaborations, such as the World Health Organization's Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study.

The Events Calendar


Projects

Social inequality and adolescent health

Funding: CIHR project grants; Canada Research Chairs program

Collaborators: Arijit Nandi, Sam Harper (McGill University); Genevieve Gariepy (University of Montreal); David Gordon (Bristol University); William Pickett (Brock University)

Summary: Unlike inequalities in health that are brought about by age or genetics, social inequalities in health are mutable and avoidable. Research into the social determinants of health focuses on adult disease or child mortality and has not fully examined the health inequalities during adolescence — particularly from an international, multilevel perspective. This project examines socioeconomic differences in adolescent health in 43 countries and how economic, political and social contexts shape these differences. Its focus is on health behaviours and emotional, physical and social health problems that contribute to chronic disease through the lifespan. The goal is to identify social influences that narrow social class differences in adolescent health, focusing on family, peer and school supports.

Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)

Partners: World Health Organization - European Office; Public Health Agency of Canada

Collaborators (Canadian team): William Pickett (Brock University); Wendy Craig, Colleen Davison, Ian Janssen, Matthew King (Queen’s University); Elizabeth Saewyc (University of British Columbia); Genevieve Gariepy (University of Montreal); Kathy Georgiades (McMaster University); Michael McIsaac (UPEI); Scott Leatherdale (University of Waterloo); Suzy Wong (Public Health Agency of Canada)

For over 30 years HBSC has been a pioneer cross-national study gaining insight into young people's well-being, health behaviours and their social context. This research collaboration with the WHO Regional Office for Europe is conducted every four years in 49 countries and regions across Europe and North America. With adolescents making about one sixth of the world's population, HBSC uses its findings to inform policy and practice to improve the lives of millions of young people. Each member country of HBSC is funded nationally. Canada has been a part of HBSC since 1994 with support from Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada and is based at Queen’s University

Investigating food insecurity, poverty, and adolescent mental and physical health in high- and low-income countries 

Funding: CIHR Project grants; SSHRC Insight Grants; CIHR Bridge grant; Canada Research Chairs program

Collaborators: Hugo Melgar-Quinonez, Patrick Cortbaoui (McGill University); William Pickett (Brock Univresity); Colleen Davison (Queens University); Genevieve Gariepy (University of Montreal); Kathy Georgiades (McMaster University); David Gordon (Bristol University); Valarie Tarasuk (University of Toronto)

Summary: Food insecurity affects 1.8 billion people worldwide and is the single largest risk factor for the global burden of disease, yet it remains an understudied threat to adolescent health. This project uses epidemiological methods to examine links between early-life food insecurity and adolescent mental health and wellbeing. The goal is to identify sensitive periods of food insecurity in terms of later health and populations of adolescents at greatest risk. Global analysis of food insecurity in 150+ high income (HIC) and low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) explores the social and economic determinants of food insecurity and its health consequences for youth, focusing on economic development and inequality. The project emphasises knowledge mobilisation and social policy and a critical examination of Canada’s implementation of the 2030 Agenda towards the SDG 2 (Zero hunger) and Canada’s Poverty Reduction Strategy.

Poverty and income inequality

Funding: CIHR Project grants; SSHRC Insight Grants; Canada Research Chairs Program

Collaborators: Genevieve Gariepy (University of Montreal); Kate Pickett, Richard Wilkinson (University of York); Timo-Kolja Pfortner, (University of Cologne)

Summary: The odds that a child is healthy, happy and doing well in school all progressively improve as social class rises. This social pattern tracks strongly into adulthood and defines health inequities throughout life. In Canada, there are five- to ten-fold differences in the rates of some illnesses and a 10-year gap in life expectancy across socioeconomic conditions. Internationally, child and adolescent health varies depending on economic wealth and inequality. Various projects are investigating the how income inequality and relative poverty affect health, violence and wellbeing in young people, the social and moral implications of health inequality in early-life, policy choices that shape opportunities to be healthy, and potential consequences of inaction.


People

Postdoctoral fellows:

Nour Hammami (PhD, Waterloo) 

Marine Avezedo Da Silva (PhD, Laval)

Graduate students: 

Allison MacNeil, PhD student in clinical psychology (co-supervised with Melanie Dirks) 

Samira Feizi, PhD student in health psychology

Sherry Hou, PhD student in epidemiology (co-supervised with Arijit Nandi)

Research assistants

Akankasha Sen (PhD student in human nutrition)

Interns and honours students

Sara Mohammadi

Kana Yokoji


Tools

These are some measures and analytic tools that I have developed.

  • Relative food insecurity (Yitzhaki index) using data from the Gallup World Poll. Social Science and Medicine, 2021 .
  • Socioeconomic status in adolescents using indices of household assets. SAGE Research Methods, 2017 .
  • Psychosomatic symptoms in adolescents using the HBSC Psychosomatic Symptoms Checklist ( Child Indicators Research, vol. 9, pp. 471-484 ).
  • Relative deprivation (Yitzhaki index) in adolescents using a material assets index of family affluence ( Social Science and Medicine, vol. 91, pp. 25-31 and Social Science and Medicine, 152, 111-118).
  • Parenting behaviours that contribute to disruptive behavioural problems in children using the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire - Short Form ( Journal of Child and Family Studies, vol. 16, pp. 243-259 )
  • A four-dimenstional index of social capital using data from the World Values Survey ( Health and Place, vol. 17, pp. 1004-1053 , see also Soc Sci Med, vol. 128, pp. 95-104 , Soc Sci Med, vol 263, p. 113365 .)
  • Screening obesity and overweight using self-reported height and weight in adolescents ( J Adol Health, vol. 37, pp. 371-375 ) and adults ( Can J Public Health, vol .99, pp. 423-427 ).
  • Disruptive behavioural problems in children according to DSM-IV criteria using the Conduct Disorder Rating Scale ( Assessment, vol. 14, pp. 65-74 ).

  • Networks

  • Canadian Institutes for Health Research
  • Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
  • Canadian Research Chairs
  • Health Behaviour in School-aged Children
  • Unicef Canada
  • Unicef Office of Research-Innocenti
  • PREVNet
  • Margaret A Gilliam Institute for Global Food Security
  • Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
  • World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe
  • Public Health Agency of Canada

    Publications

    Search articles on PubMed or Google Scholar . PDFs are mostly available on ResearchGate .

    Looking for something in particular? This list is searchable.

      Journal articles:

      1. MacNeil, A.H., Farrell-Reeves, A., Elgar, F.J., Dirks, M. (in press). Food and mood: Daily associations between missed meals and affect among early adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology.
      2. Bjereld, Y., Cosma, A., Walsh, S., Richardson, C., Craig, W., Bilz, L., Malinowska-Cieślik, M., Molcho, M., Agustine, L., & Elgar, F. J. (in press). Gender inequality predicts gender differences in bullying: Multilevel study of adolescents in 46 countries. Journal of Adolescent Health.
      3. Hammami, N., Gobina, I., Lukoševičiūtė, J., Kostičová, M., Lyyra, N., Gariepy, G., Šmigelskas, K., Baban, A., Malinowska-Cieślik., & Elgar, F. J. (in press). Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health complaints: A multilevel latent class analysis in 45 countries. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-022-03038-6/
      4. Dierckens, M., Moor, I., Elgar, F. J., Clays, E., Deforche, B., & De Clercq, B. (2022) Trends in material and occupational-social class inequalities in adolescent health and health behaviours: a 12-year study in 23 European countries. Preventive Medicine, 157, 107018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2022.107018.
      5. Hammami, N., Erdoğan, Y., & Elgar, F. J. (in press). Socioeconomic position mediates the relationship between family social benefits and adolescent life satisfaction in 25 countries. Child Indicators Research, https://10.1007/s12187-022-09929-1.
      6. Stefanik, A., Wohl, M. J. A., & Elgar, F. J. (2022). Commentary on “Different roles of interpersonal trust and institutional trust in COVID-19 pandemic control.” Social Science and Medicine, 299, 113765. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2022.114765
      7. Ovenell, M., Azevedo Da Silva, M., & Elgar, F. J. (2022). Shielding children from food insecurity and its association with mental health and well-being in Canadian households. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 113, 250-259 https://doi:10.17269/s41997-021-00597-2.
      8. Hammami, N., Azevedo Da Silva, M., & Elgar, F. J. (2022). Trends in gender and socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health over 16 years (2002-2018): Findings from the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada, 42(2), 22-33. https://doi.org/10.24095/hpcdp.42.2.03
      9. Pfortner, T. K., Elgar, F. J. , & Pfaff, K. (2022). Dualized labor market and polarized health: A longitudinal perspective on the association between precarious employment and mental and physical health in Germany. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, https://doi.org/10.1177/00221465211066855.
      10. Xuereb, S., Wohl, M. J. A., Stefaniak, A., Elgar, F. J. . (2021). Social and economic determinants of support for a strong leader in democracies differ from non-democracies. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 9, 334-352. doi:10.5964/jspp.7235
      11. McDaniel, M., Sutter, C., Elgar, F. J. , Parker, K., Webb, J., & Nwachu, J. (2021). Breaking the cycle of crime: promoting the positive social spillover potential of entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 16, e00249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbvi.2021.e00249
      12. Elgar, F. J. , Sen, A., Gariepy, G., Pickett, W., Georgiades, K., Hammami, N., Azevedo Da Silva, M., & Gordon, D. (2021). Food insecurity, state fragility and youth mental health: A global perspective. Social Science and Medicine - Population Health, 14, 100764. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2021.100764
      13. Men, F., Elgar, F. J. , & Tarasuk, V. (2021). Food insecurity is associated with mental health problems among Canadian youth. Journal of Community Health and Epidemiology, 75, 741-748. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2020-216149
      14. Elgar, F. J. , Pickett, W., Pfortner, T. K., Gariepy, G., Gordon, D. Georgiades, K., Davison, C., Hammami, N., MacNeil, A., Azevedo Da Silva, M., & Melgar-Quinonez, H. R. (2021). Relative food insecurity, mental health and wellbeing in 160 countries. Social Science and Medicine, 268, 113556. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113556
      15. Hammami, N., Leatherdale, S. T., & Elgar, F. J. (2020). Does social support moderate the association between hunger and mental health in youth? A gender-specific investigation from the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Nutrition Journal, 19, 134. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12937-020-00648-3
      16. Elgar, F. J. , Stefaniak, A., & Wohl, M. J. A. (2020). Response to Lindstrom (2020) on "The trouble with trust: Time-series analysis of social capital, income inequality, and COVID-19 deaths in 84 countries." Social Science and Medicine, 263, 113518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113518
      17. Elgar, F. J. , Stefaniak, A., & Wohl, M. J. A. (2020). The trouble with trust: Time-series analysis of social capital, income inequality, and COVID-19 deaths in 84 countries. Social Science and Medicine, 263, 113365 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113365
      18. Maduro, A., Elgar, F. J. , Demchenko, I., Carboni-Jimenez, A., Mady, N., Tounkara, F., Sapkota, R. P., & Brunet, A. (2020). Methodological restrictions within a birth cohort study examining maternal mood symptoms and postpartum depression. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 55, 1547-1548. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-020-01925-6
      19. Dierckens, M., Weinberg, D., Huang, Y., Elgar, F. J. , Moor, I., Augustine, L., Lyyra, N., Deforche, B., De Clercq, B., Stevens, G. W. J. M., & Currie, C. (2020). National-level wealth inequality and socioeconomic inequality in adolescent mental well-being: A time series analysis of 17 countries. Journal of Adolescent Health, 66(6), S21-S28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.03.009
      20. Gariepy, G., Danna, S., Gobina, I., Rasmussen, M., Gaspar de Matos, M., Tynjala, J., Janssen, I., Kalman, M., Villerusa, A., Husarova, D., Brooks, F., Elgar, F. J. , Klavina-Makrecka, S., Smigelskas, K., Gaspar, T., & Schnohr, C. (2020). How are adolescents sleeping? Adolescent sleep patterns and sociodemographic differences in 24 European and North American countries. Journal of Adolescent Health, 66(6), S81-S88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.03.013
      21. Craig, W., Boniel-Nissim, M., King, N., Walsh, S. D., Boer, M., Donnelly, P. D., Harel-Fisch, Y., Malinowska-Cielik, M., Gastar de Matos, M., Cosma, A., Van den Eijnden, R., Vieno, A., Elgar, F. J. , Molcho, M., Bjereld, Y., & Pickett, P. (2020). Social media use and cyber-bullying: A cross-national analysis of young people in 42 countries. Journal of Adolescent Health, 66(6), S100-S108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.03.006
      22. Johansson, K., Petersen, S., Hogberg, B., Stevens, G. W.J.M., De Clercq, B., Frasquilho, D., Elgar, F. J. , & Strandh, M. (2019). The interplay between national and parental unemployment in relation to adolescent life satisfaction in 27 countries: analyses of repeated cross-sectional school surveys. BMC Public Health, 19, 1155. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7721-1
      23. Elgar, F. J. , Gariepy, G., & Dirks, M. (2019). Remarks on early-life income inequality and bullying in adolescence [Letter]. JAMA Pediatrics, 173(12), 1212-1213. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.3974
      24. Hendriks, A. M., Bartels, M., Finkenauer, C., Elgar, F. J. , Stevens, G. W. J. M., Walsh, S., Torbjorn, T. (2020). National child and adolescent health policies as indicators of adolescent mental health: A multilevel analysis of 30 European countries. Journal of Early Adolescence, 40, 537-565. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431619858413
      25. Rothwell, D. W., Gariepy, G., Elgar, F. J. , & Lach, L. H. (2019). Trajectories of poverty and economic hardship among American families supporting a child with a neurodisability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 63, 1273-1284. https://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12666
      26. Pfortner, T. K., Pfaff, H., & Elgar, F. J. (2019). The role of welfare state characteristics for health and inequalities in health from a cross-national perspective: A critical research synthesis. Kolner Zeitschrift fur Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie - Cologne Journal of Sociology and Social Psychology, 71(Suppl. 1), 465-489. https://doi.org/10.1177/00221465211066855
      27. Elgar, F. J. , Gariepy, G., Dirks, M., Walsh, S. D., Molcho, M., Cosma, A., Malinowska-Cieslik, M., Donnelly, P., & Craig, W. (2019). Early-life exposure to income inequality and bullying in adolescence: panel study in 40 countries. JAMA Pediatrics, 173(7), e191181. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.1181
      28. Gariepy, G., Dore, I., Whitehead, R., & Elgar, F. J. (2019). More than just sleeping in: A late timing of sleep is associated with health problems and unhealthy behaviours in adolescents. Sleep Medicine, 56, 66-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2018.10.029
      29. de Looze, M. E., Elgar, F. J. , Kolip, P, & Currie, C. (2019). Gender inequality and adolescent gender differences in physical fighting, physical activity, and injury across 36 countries. Journal of Adolescent Health, 64, 657-663. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.11.007
      30. Reihm, K. E., Latimer, E., Quesnel-Vallee, A., Stevens, G. W. J. M., Gariepy, G., & Elgar, F. J. (2019). Does the density of the health workforce predict adolescent health? A cross-sectional, multilevel study of 38 countries. Journal of Public Health, 41, e35-43. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdy096
      31. Sentenac, M., Lach, L. M., Gariepy, G., & Elgar, F. J. (2019). Education disparities in youth with neurodisabilities in Canada. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 61, 226-231. https://doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.14014
      32. Su, Q., Chen, Z., Li, R., Elgar, F. J. , Liu, Z., & Lian, Q. (2018). Association between early menarche and school bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 63, 213-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.02.008
      33. Elgar, F. J. , Donnelly, P., Gariepy, G., Riehm, K., & Pickett, W. (2018). Bans against corporal punishment and physical fighting in adolescents in 88 countries and regions. BMJ Open, 8, e021616. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021616
      34. Elgar, F. J. , Canale, N., Wohl, M., Lenzi, M., & Vieno, A. (2018). Relative deprivation and disordered gambling in youths. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 72, 589-594. https://10.1136/jech-2017-209858
      35. Gariepy, G., Riehm, K., Whitehead, R., Doré, I., & Elgar, F. J. (2018). Teenage night owls or early birds? Chronotype and the mental health of adolescents. Journal of Sleep Research, e12723. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12723
      36. Vieno, A., Altoè, G., Kuntsche, E., & Elgar, F. J. (2018). Do public expenditures on health and families relate to alcohol abstaining in adolescents? Multilevel study of adolescents in 24 countries. Drug and Alcohol Review, 37, S120-S128. https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.12696
      37. Gariepy, G., Sentenac, M. Jannsen, I., & Elgar, F. J. (2018). School start time and the healthy weight of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 63, 69-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.01.009
      38. Lian, Q., Su, Q., Elgar, F. J. , Liu, Z., & Zheng, D. (2018). The association between chronic bullying victimization with weight status and body self-image: a cross-national study in 39 countries. PeerJ, 6, e4330. http://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4330
      39. Chzhen, Y., Bruckauf, Z., Toczydlowska, E., Elgar, F. J. , Moreno-Maldonado, C., Stevens, G. W. J. M., Sigmundová, D., & Gariepy, G. (2018). Multidimensional poverty among adolescents in 38 Countries: Evidence from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2013/14 Study. Child Indicators Research, 11, 729-753. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-017-9489-0
      40. Barsties, L., Walsh, S. D., Huijts, T., Bendtsen, P., Molcho, M., Buijs, T., Vieno, A., Elgar, F. J. , & Stevens, G. (2017). Alcohol consumption among first- and second-generation immigrant and native adolescents in 23 countries: Testing the importance of origin and receiving country alcohol prevalence rates. Drug and Alcohol Review, 36, 769-778. http:///doi.org/10.1111/dar.12624
      41. Sentenac, M., Ehlinger, V., Napoletano, A., Spilka, S., Gariepy, G., Godeau, E., & Elgar, F. J. (2017). Relative deprivation and episodes of drunkenness among French and Canadian adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Review, 36, 788-796. https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.12540
      42. Rathmann, K., Pfoertner, T. K., Elgar, F. J. , Hurrelmann, K., & Richter, M. (2017). The Great recession, adolescent smoking and smoking inequalities: What role does youth unemployment play in 24 European countries? Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 19, 1284-1291. doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntw298
      43. Wozney, L., Olthuis, J., Pottie, P., McGrath, P. J., Olthuis, J., Turner, K., Kennedy, J., Elgar, F. J. , Chaplin, W., Cheney, B., & Huguet, A. (2017). A randomized controlled trial of a distance intervention for women with postpartum depression. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 20, 525-537. https://doi:10.1007/s00737-017-0732-y
      44. Brownridge, D. A., Taillieu, T., Afifi, T., Chan, K. L., Emery, C., Lavoie, J., & Elgar, F. J. (2017). Child maltreatment and intimate partner violence among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Canadians. Journal of Family Violence, 32, 607-619. doi:10.1007/s10896-016-9880-5.
      45. Gariepy, G., Sentenac, M. Barrington-Leigh, C., & Elgar, F. J. (2017). Early-life family income and subjective well-being in adolescents. PLoS ONE, 12(7), e0179380. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179380.
      46. Gariepy, G., Janssen, I., Sentenac, M., & Elgar, F. J. (2017). School start time and sleep in Canadian school-aged children. Journal of Sleep Research, 26, 195-201. doi: 10.1111/jsr.12475
      47. Elgar, F. J. , Xie, A., Pfoertner, T. K., White, J., & Pickett, K. (2017). Assessing the view from bottom: How to measure socioeconomic position and relative deprivation in adolescents. SAGE Research Methods Cases Part 2. dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781526406347
      48. Elgar, F. J. , Gariepy, G., Torsheim, T., & Currie, C. (2017). Early-life income inequality and adolescent health and well-being. Social Science and Medicine, 174, 197-208. doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.10.014 .
      49. De Clercq, B., Deforche, B., Elgar, F. J. , Abel, T., Lievens, J., Sion, I., Moor, I., & Braeckman, L. (2017). Social inequality in adolescents' healthy food intake: The interplay between economic, social, and cultural capital. European Journal of Public Health, 27(2), 279-286. doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckw236 .
      50. Gariepy, G., & Elgar, F. J. (2016). Trends in psychological symptoms among Canadian adolescents from 2002 to 2014: Gender and socioeconomic differences. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 61(12), 797-802 doi: 10.1177/0706743716670130 .
      51. Sentenac, M., Gariepy, G., McKinnon, B., & Elgar, F. J. (2016). Hunger and overweight in Canadian school-aged children: A propensity score matching analysis. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 107(5-6), e447-e452, doi: 10.17269/cjph.107.5526.
      52. Napoletano, A., Elgar, F. J. , Saul, G., Dirks, M., & Craig, W. (2016). The view from the bottom: Relative deprivation and bullying victimisation in Canadian adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31(20), 3443-3463,doi:10.1177/0886260515585528.
      53. Rathmann, K., Pfoertner, T. K., Osorio, A. M., Hurrelmann, K., Elgar, F. J. , Bosakova, L., & Richter, M. (2016). Adolescents' psychological health during the economic recession: Does public spending buffer health inequalities among young people? BMC Public Health, 16(1), 860,doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-3551-6.
      54. Rathmann, K., Pfoertner, T. K., Hurrelmann, K., Osorio, A. M., Bosakova, L., Elgar, F. J. , & Richter, M. (2016). The great recession, youth unemployment and inequalities in psychological health in adolescents: a multilevel study in 31 countries. International Journal of Public Health, 61(7), 809-819, doi:10.1007/s00038-016-0866-0.
      55. Rathmann, K., Moor, I., Kunst, A. E., Dragano, N., Pfoertner, T. K., Elgar, F. J. , Hurrelmann, K., Kannas, L., Baska, T., & Richter, M. (2016). Is educational differentiation associated with smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence? A multilevel analysis across 27 European and North American countries. Sociology of Health and Illness, 38(7), 1005-1025, doi:10.1111/1467-9566.12420.
      56. Gariepy, G., Sentenac, M., McKinnon, B., & Elgar, F. J. (2016). Validity and reliability of a brief symptom checklist to measure psychological health in school-aged children. Child Indicators Research, 9(2), 471-484. doi:10.1007/s12187-015-9326-2.
      57. Elgar, F. J. , McKinnon, B., Torbjorn, T., Schnohr C. W., Mazur, J., Cavallo, F., & Currie, C. (2016). Patterns of socioeconomic inequality in adolescent health differ according to the measure of socioeconomic position. Social Indicators Research, 127, 1169-1180. doi:10.1007/s11205-015-0994-6.
      58. McKinnon B., Gariepy, G., Sentenac, M., & Elgar, F. J. (2016). Epidemiology of adolescent suicidal behaviours in 32 low- and middle-income countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 94, 340-350F, doi:10.2471/BLT.15.163295.
      59. Elgar, F. J. , Xie, A., Pfoertner, T. K., White, J., & Pickett, K. (2016). Relative deprivation and risk factors for obesity in Canadian adolescents. Social Science and Medicine, 152, 111-118, doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.01.039
      60. Pfoertner, T. K., & Elgar, F. J. (2016). Widening inequalities in self-rated health by material deprivation? A trend analysis between 2001 and 2011 in Germany. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 70, 82-89, doi:doi:10.1136/jech-2015-205948.
      61. Elgar, F. J. , McKinnon, B., Walsh, S. D., Freeman, J., Donnelly, P., Gaspar de Matos, M. Gariepy, G., Aleman-Diaz, A. Y., Pickett, W., Molcho, M., & Currie, C. (2015). Structural determinants of youth bullying and fighting in 79 countries. Journal of Adolescent Health, 57, 643-650, doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.08.007.
      62. Pickett, W., & Elgar, F. J. (2015). Reducing school violence in Africa: learning from Uganda. The Lancet Global Health, 3, e344-345 doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(15)00031-5.
      63. Elgar, F. J. , Pfoertner, T. K., Moor, I., De Clercq, B., Stevens, G. W. J. M., & Currie, C. (2015). Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health 2002-2010: A time-series analysis of 34 countries participating in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The Lancet, 385(9982), 2088-2095, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61460-4.
      64. Moor, I., Richter, M., Ravens-Sieberer U., Ottava-Jordan, V., Elgar, F. J. , & Pfortner, T. K. (2015). Trends in social inequalities in adolescent health complaints from 1994 to 2010 in Europe, North America and Israel: The HBSC study. European Journal of Public Health, 25(Suppl. 2), 57-60, doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckv028.
      65. Rathmann, K., Ottova, V., Hurrelmann, K., de Looze, M., Levin, K., Molcho, M., Elgar, F. J. , Gabhainn, S. N., Van Dijk, J. P., Richter, M. (2015). Macro-level determinants of young people's subjective health and health inequalities: A multilevel analysis in 27 welfare states. Maturitas, 80, 414-420, doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2015.01.008.
      66. De Looze, M., Janssen, I., Elgar, F. J. , Craig, W., & Pickett, W. (2015). Neighbourhood crime and adolescent cannabis use in Canadian adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 146, 68-74, doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.11.005.
      67. Elgar, F. J. , Craig, W., Napoletano, A., Saul, G., Poteat, V. P., Dirks, M. A., & Koenig, B. W. (2014). Cyberbullying victimization and mental health in adolescents and the moderating role of family dinners. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(11), 1015-1022,doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.1223.
      68. Pfoertner, T., Rathmann, K., Elgar, F. J. , de Looze, M., Hoffmann, F., Ottova, V., Ravens-Sieberer, U., Bosakova, L., Currie, C., & Richter, M. (2014). Adolescents' psychological health complaints and the economic recession in late 2007: a multilevel study in 31 countries. European Journal of Public Health, 24, 961-967,doi:10.1093/eurpub/cku056.
      69. White, J., Shelton, K., & Elgar, F. J. (2014). Parental and adolescent perceptions of family: Associations with depressive symptoms, anxiety, disordered eating and global self-worth. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 45, 544-554, doi:10.1007/s10578-013-0423-5.
      70. De Clercq, B., Pfoertner, T. K., Elgar, F. J. , Hublet, A., & Maes, L. (2014). Social capital and adolescent smoking in schools and communities: A cross-classified multilevel analysis. Social Science and Medicine, 119C, 81-87, doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.08.018.
      71. Frank, C., Davis, C. G., & Elgar, F. J. (2014). Financial strain, social capital and perceived health during economic recession: A longitudinal survey in rural Canada. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 27(4), 422-438, doi:10.1080/10615806.2013.864389.
      72. Michaelson, V., Davison, C., Trothen, T., Elgar, F. J. , & Pickett, W. (2014). Eucharistic eating, family meals and the health of adolescent girls: A Canadian study. Practical Theology, 7, 125-143, doi.org/10.1179/1756073X14Z.00000000036.
      73. Lenzi, M., Vieno, A., Gini, G., Pozzoli, T., Pastore, M., Santinello, M., & Elgar, F. J. (2014). Perceived teacher unfairness, instrumental goals and bullying behavior in early adolescence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(10), 1834-1849, doi:10.1177/0886260513511694.
      74. Elgar, F. J. (2014). Equality, social cohesion and wellbeing [Review]. Journal for a Progressive Economy, 1(2), 56-60, ISSN:2295-6301.
      75. Elgar, F. J. , Baranek, H., Saul, G., & Napoletano, A. (2013). Relative deprivation and mental health in Canadian adolescents. International Journal of Clinical Psychology and Mental Health, 1, 33-40, doi:10.12970/2310-8231.2013.01.01.4.
      76. Schnohr, C. W., Makransky, G., Kreiner, S., Torsheim, T., Hofmann, F., De Clerq, B., Elgar, F. J. , & Currie, C. (2013). Item response drift in the Family Affluence Scale: A study on three consecutive surveys of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. Measurement, 46, 3119-3126, doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2013.06.016.
      77. Elgar, F. J. , de Clercq, B., Schnohr, C. W., Bird, P., Pickett, K. E., Torsheim, T., Hofmann, F., & Currie, C. (2013). Absolute and relative family affluence and psychosomatic symptoms in adolescents. Social Science and Medicine, 91, 25-31, doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.04.030.
      78. Elgar, F. J. , Pickett, K. E., Pickett, W., Craig, W., Molcho, M., Hurrelmann, K., & Lenzi, M. (2013). School bullying, homicide and income inequality: A cross-national pooled time series analysis. International Journal of Public Health, 58(2), 237-245, doi:10.1007/s00038-012-0380-y.
      79. Denny, K. & Elgar, F. J. (2013). Mental health: Population perspectives [Editorial]. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 32(1), 1-7, doi:10.7870/cjcmh-2013-002.
      80. Elgar, F. J. , Craig, W., & Trites, S. (2013). Family dinners and mental health in Canadian adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52(4), 433-438, doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.07.012.
      81. Pickett, W., Molcho, M., Elgar, F. J. , Brooks, F., Rathmann, K., Ter bogt, T., nic Gabhainn, S., Sigmundova, D., Gaspar de Matos, M., Craig, W., Walsh, S., Harel-Fisch, Y., & Currie, C. (2013). Trends and socio-economic correlates of adolescent physical fighting in 30 countries. Pediatrics, 131(1), e18-26, doi:10.1542/peds.2012-1614.
      82. Lenzi, M., Vieno, A., Perkins, D. D., Santinello, M., Elgar, F. J. , Morgan, A., & Mazzardis, S. (2012). Family affluence, school and neighbourhood contexts and adolescents' civic engagement: A cross-national study. American Journal of Community Psychology, 50, 197-210, doi:10.1007/s10464-012-9489-7.
      83. De Clercq, B, Vyncke, V., Hublet, A., Elgar, F. J. Ravens-Sieberer, U., Currie C., Hooghe, M., Ieven, A., & Maes L. (2012). Social capital and social inequality in adolescents' health in 601 Flemish communities: A multilevel analysis. Social Science and Medicine, 74, 202-210, doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.10.025.
      84. Elgar, F. J. , Davis, C. G., Wohl, M. J., Trites, S. J., Zelenski, J. M., & Martin, M. S. (2011). Social capital, health and life satisfaction in 50 countries. Health and Place, 17, 1044-1053, doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2011.06.010.
      85. Elgar, F. J. , Phillips, N., & Hammond, N. (2011). Trends in alcohol and drug use among Canadian adolescents, 1990-2006. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56, 243-247, doi:10.1177/070674371105600408
      86. Elgar, F. J. , & Aitken, N. (2011). Income inequality, trust, and homicide in 33 countries. European Journal of Public Health, 21, 241-246, doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckq068.
      87. Elgar, F. J. , Trites, S. J., & Boyce, W. (2010). Social capital reduces socioeconomic differences in child health: Evidence from the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 101, S23-S27, doi:10.17269/cjph.101.2137.
      88. Elgar, F. J. (2010). Income inequality, trust, and population health in 33 countries. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 2311-2315, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.189134
      89. Vella-Zarb, R. A., & Elgar, F. J. (2010). Predicting the 'Freshman 15': Environmental and psychological predictors of weight gain in first year university students. Health Education Journal, 69, 321-332, doi:10.1177/0017896910369416
      90. Due, P., Damsgaard, M. T., Rasmussen, M., Halstein, B. E., Sørensen, T. I. A., Wardle, J., Merlo, J., Currie, C., Ahluwalia, N., Lynch, J., HBSC obesity writing group, Borraccino, A., Borup, I., Boyce, W., Elgar, F. J. , Gabhainn, S. N., Krolner, R., Svastisalee, C., Matos, M. C., Nansel, T., Al Sabbah, H., Vereecken, C., & Valimaa, R. (2009). Socioeconomic position, macro-economic environment, and overweight among adolescents in 35 countries. International Journal of Obesity, 33, 1084-1093, doi:10.1038/ijo.2009.128
      91. Vella-Zarb, R., & Elgar, F. J. (2009). The 'Freshman 5': A meta-analysis of weight gain in the freshman year of college. American Journal of College Health, 58, 161-166, doi:10.1080/07448480903221392
      92. Elgar, F. J. , Craig, W., Boyce, W., Morgan, A., & Vella-Zarb, R. (2009). Income inequality and school bullying: Multilevel study of adolescents in 37 countries. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45, 351-359, doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.04.004.
      93. Al Sabbah, H., Vereecken, C., Elgar, F. J. , Nansel, T., Aasvee, K., Abdeen, Z., Ojala, K., Ahluwalia, N., & Maes, L. (2009). Body weight dissatisfaction and communication with parents among adolescents in 24 countries: International cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health, 9, 52, doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-52
      94. Elgar, F. J. , & Stewart, J. M. (2008). Validity of screening for overweight and obesity using self-report data: evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Canadian Public Health Journal, 99, 423-433 doi:10.17269/cjph.99.1679.
      95. Thomas, R., Worrall, G. J., Elgar, F. J. , & Knight, J. (2007). Can they keep going on their own? A four-year randomised trial of functional assessments of community residents. Canadian Journal on Aging, 26, 379-390, doi:10.3138/cja.26.4.379
      96. Elgar, F. J. , Mills, R. S. L., McGrath, P. J., Waschbusch, D. A., & Brownridge, D. A. (2007). Maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and child maladjustment: The mediating role of parental behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 943-955, doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9145-0
      97. Mills, R. S. L., Freeman, W. S., Clara, I. P., Elgar, F. J. , Walling, B. R., & Mak, L. (2007). Parents' proneness to shame and the use of psychological control. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 359-374, doi:10.1007/s10826-006-9091-4.
      98. Elgar, F. J. , Waschbusch, D. A., Dadds, M. R., & Sigvaldason, N. (2007). Development and validation of a short form of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire. Journal Child and Family Studies, 16, 243-259, doi:10.1007/s10826-006-9082-5
      99. Waschbusch, D. A., & Elgar, F. J. (2007). Development and validation of the Conduct Disorder Rating Scale. Assessment, 14, 65-74, doi:10.1177/1073191106289908
      100. Elgar, F. J. , Roberts, C., & Moore, L. (2006). On self-reported and measured height and weight in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38, 334-335, 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.01.007
      101. Chalder, M., Elgar, F. J. , & Bennett, P. (2006). Drinking and motivations to drink among adolescent children of parents with alcohol problems. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 41, 107-113, 10.1093/alcalc/agh215
      102. Elgar, F. J. , Roberts, C., Tudor-Smith, C., & Moore, L. (2005). Validity of self-reported height and weight and predictors of bias in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 37, 371-375, doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2004.07.014
      103. Elgar, F. J. , Roberts, C., Parry-Langdon, N., & Boyce, W. (2005). Income inequality and alcohol use: A multilevel analysis of drinking and drunkenness in adolescents in 34 countries. European Journal of Public Health, 15, 245-250,doi:10.1093/eurpub/cki093.
      104. Elgar, F. J. , Roberts, C., Moore, L., & Tudor-Smith, C. (2005). Sedentary behaviour, physical activity, and weight problems in adolescents. Public Health, 119, 519-525, doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2004.10.011.
      105. Glazier, R., Elgar, F. J. , Goel, V., & Holzapfel, S. (2004). Stress, social support and emotional distress in a community sample of pregnant women. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 25, 247-255 doi:10.1080/01674820400024406.
      106. Elgar, F. J. , & Klein, R. M. (2004). What you don't know: Graduate deans' knowledge of doctoral completion statistics. Higher Education Policy, 17, 325-336, doi:10.1057/palgrave.hep.8300059.
      107. Elgar, F. J. , McGrath, P. J., Waschbusch, D. A., Stewart, S. H., & Curtis, L. J. (2004). Mutual influences on maternal mood and child adjustment problems [Review]. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 441-459, doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2004.02.002.
      108. Elgar, F. J. , Waschbusch, D. A., McGrath, P. J., Stewart, S. H., & Curtis, L. J. (2004). Temporal relations in maternal mood and disruptive child behaviour. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 237-247, doi:10.1023/B:JACP.0000026138.95860.81
      109. McGrath, P. J., Elgar, F. J. , Johnston, C., Dozois, D. J. A., & Reyno, S. (2003). Treating maternal depression? British Journal of Psychiatry, 183, 461-462 doi:10.1192/bjp.183.5.461-a
      110. Elgar, F. J. , Arlett, C, & Groves, R. (2003). Stress, coping and behavioural problems among rural and urban adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 26, 574-585, doi:10.1016/S0140-1971(03)00057-5
      111. Elgar, F. J. , Knight, J., Worrall, G. J., & Sherman, G. (2003). Behavioural and substance use problems in rural and urban delinquent males. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48, 633-636, doi:10.1177/070674370304800911
      112. Elgar, F. J. , Curtis, L. J., McGrath, P. J., Waschbusch, D. A., & Stewart, S. H. (2003). Antecedent-consequence conditions in maternal mood and child adjustment: A four-year cross-lagged study. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 362-374, doi:10.1207/S15374424JCCP3203_05
      113. Elgar, F. J. , Knight, J., Worrall, G. J., & Sherman, G. (2003). Attachment characteristics and behavioural problems in rural and urban juvenile delinquents. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 34, 35-48.doi.org/10.1023/A:1025349908855
      114. Elgar, F. J. & McGrath, P. J. (2003). Self-administered psychosocial treatments for children and families [Review]. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59, 321-339, doi:10.1002/jclp.10132
      115. Elgar, F. J. , Worrall, G., & Knight, J. (2002). Functional assessment of elderly clients in a rural community-based long-term care program: A ten-year cohort study. Canadian Journal on Aging, 21, 455-463, doi:10.1017/S0714980800001768.
      116. Elgar, F. J. (2002). Disordered eating behaviour or just poor diet? [letter] Canadian Medical Association Journal, 166, 1396-1397, PMID:12054404.
      117. Elgar, F. J. & Arlett, C. (2002). Perceived social inadequacy and depressed mood in adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 25, 306-310, doi:10.1006/jado.2002.0473
      118. Al Marri, S. A., Al Taweel, A. A., & Elgar, F. J. (2002). Factors influencing job satisfaction among primary health care physicians in Qatar. Qatar Medical Journal, 11, 15-18, doi:10.5339/qmj.2002.1.11.
      119. Yusuf, S., Gerstein, H., Hoogwerf, B., Pogue, J., Bosch, J., Wolffenbuttel, B. H., Zinman, B., & HOPE Study Investigators (2001). Ramipril and the development of diabetes. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(15), 1882–1885. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.286.15.1882
      120. Worrall, G., Elgar, F. J. , & Knight, J. (2001). Predictive value of support systems in a long-term care program. Home Care Provider, 6, 32-36, doi:10.1067/mhc.2001.113205.
      121. Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study Investigators (2000). Effects of Ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: Results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. The Lancet, 355, 253-259, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)12323-7
      122. Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators (2000). Effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, Ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. New England Journal of Medicine, 342, 145-153, doi:10.1056/NEJM200001203420301
      123. Worrall, G., Elgar, F. J. , & Robbins, M. (2000). Improving management of depression [Letter]. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 162, 316-317, https://www.cmaj.ca/content/162/3/316.1.
      124. Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators, Yusuf, S., Dagenais, G., Pogue, J., Bosch, J., & Sleight, P. (2000). Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. New England Journal of Medicine. 342(3), 154-160, 0.1056/NEJM200001203420302

      Selected chapters and reports:

      1. Hammami, N., Elgar, F. J., & Azevedo Da Silva, M. (2022). Trends in health inequalities in Canadian adolescents from 2002 to 2018: Findings from the 2018 Health Behaviour of School-aged Children (HBSC) Study. Ottawa, ON: Public Health Agency of Canada, Cat. HP15-61/2021E-PDF, ISBN 978-0-660-39533-3, Pub 210164
      2. Elgar, F. J. (2020). Inequality fuels the spread of COVID-19 [Blog]. Learning from COVID - Perspectives on Health and Social Policy - COVID and Beyond. Montreal, Canada: Institute for Health and Social Policy, McGill University, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.30548.42884
      3. Elgar. F. J. (2020). Scientific conclusions. In J. Inchley et al. (Eds.), Spotlight on adolescent health and well-being: Findings from the 2017/2018 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey in Europe and Canada. International report. Volume 1. Key findings (pp. 44-45). Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.HBSC website
      4. Pfoertner, T. K., Elgar, F. J. , Rathmann, K., & Richter, M. (2017). The Great Recession and adolescent health and inequalities in adolescent health in North America, Europe, and Israel. In I. Schoon & J. Bynner (Eds.), Young People's Development and the Great Recession: Uncertain Transitions and Precarious Futures (pp. 401-424). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, ISBN:9781107172975.
      5. Elgar, F. J. (March, 2017). Inequality and the dark side of politics. Huffington Post, link.
      6. Inchley, J., Currie, D., Jewell, J., et al (2017). Adolescent obesity and related behaviours: Trends and inequalities in the WHO European Region 2002-2014: Observations from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) WHO collaborative cross-national study. WHO/EURO: Copenhagen, ISBN 978 92 890 5240 5
      7. Elgar, F. J. (2017). Social inequalities. In J. Inchley, D. Currie, J. Jewell, J. Breda, V. Barnekow (Eds.). Adolescent obesity and related behaviours: Trends and inequalities in the WHO European Region 2002-2014: Observations from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) WHO collaborative cross-national study (pp. 37-40). WHO/EURO: Copenhagen, ISBN 978 92 890 5240 5.
      8. Gariepy, G., McKinnon, B., Sentenac, M., & Elgar, F. J. (2016). Community. In J. Freeman, M. King., & W. Pickett (Eds.), Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) in Canada: Focus on Relationships (Catalogue no. HP35-65/2016E), pp. 55-64, Ottawa, ON: Public Health Agency of Canada, ISBN:978-0-660-03890-2.
      9. Elgar, F. J. (2016). Family affluence. In J. Inchley et al. (Eds), Growing up unequal: gender and socioeconomic differences in young people's health and well-being: Health Behaviour in School- aged Children (HBSC) study: International report from 2013/2014 survey. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents No. 7. Denmark: WHO European Office for Europe, ISBN:978-92-890-5136.
      10. McGrath, P. J., & Elgar, F. J. (2015). Behavioral problems, effects of socioeconomic status on. In J. D. Wright (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.), pp. 477-480, Philadelphia PA: Elsevier, doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.23052-3.
      11. Elgar, F. J. , & Pickett, W., & King, M. A. (2011). Substance use and risk behavior. In J. G. Freeman, W. Pickett, M. A. King, W., Craig, F. J. Elgar, I. Janssen, & D. Klinger (Eds.), The health of Canada's young people: a mental health focus (pp. 145-164). Cat. No. hP15-13/2011E-PDF. Ottawa, Health Canada, ISBN: 978-1-100-19337-3.
      12. Elgar, F. J. (2008). Family Culture. In W. Boyce (Ed.), Healthy settings for young people in Canada (pp. 6-19). Public Health Agency of Canada: Ottawa: Health Canada. ISBN:978-0-662-46968-1.
      13. Elgar, F. J. , & McGrath, P. J. (2008). Self-help interventions for childhood disorders. In P. L. Watkins & G. A. Clum (Eds.), Handbook of self-help therapies (pp. 129-161). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, ISBN: 9780805851717
      14. McRae, B., & Elgar, F. J. (2004). How to Write a Thesis and Keep Your Sanity [e-book]. Halifax, Canada: Atlantic Leadership Development Institute, ISBN 0-9737605-0-8.
      15. Elgar, F. J. (2002). PhD degree completion in Canadian universities. Halifax, Canada: Graduate Students Association of Canada, doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.17087606.

    Contact

    Prospective graduate students in the MSc and PhD programmes in Psychiatry or Psychology with research interests in adolescent health should contact Dr. Elgar directly (frank.elgar@mcgill.ca).

    The IHSP runs several programs for undergraduate and graduate students from all disciplines. Details and application instructions are posted on the IHSP website . As well, applications to the Global Health Scholars program are usually accepted until mid-February.

    Address: 1160-2001 McGill College Avenue, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 1G1
    tel: +1 514 398 1739